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MMDA Editorial Guidelines

Please refer to the following guidelines for transcription, annotation, and the glossary. We continuously update these guidelines to reflect our most current practices, so some points may differ from previous versions. For a list of Guideline Revisions, see the bottom of this page.

CWRC-Writer (GitHub) Transcription Guidelines

If you are assisting with the transcription or annotation of a notebook using CWRC-Writer and have any questions, contact Cristanne Miller.

General Principles

Our central aim is to produce a clear and accurate transcription of the words written on the page. We are not attempting to recreate the exact visual layout of the original document.

Numbered lines should contain only authorial handwriting and notes. Do not reproduce non-authorial marks or pre-printed words. Users can see the MS page and so will not need to be told what pre-printed information is on it. Ignore where MM's handwriting appears in relation to pre-print information.

Getting Started

Ideally use GOOGLE CHROME’s “Incognito Mode” as your browser (to ensure your cache and cookies are clear). Open a fresh browser window at the start of every new session to ensure that your validation with GitHub is reset. This will facilitate saving your work.

Go to https://cwrc-writer.cwrc.ca/. Scroll through the initial screen and hit “continue.” Upon your first use, it will direct you to create an account/register.

After hitting “continue” from the opening screen, a “Load a Document” box will open. Choose “GitHubRepositories” from the options, then “Public Repositories.” This will open a window [“Limit to user or organization”], and you type in:

    marianne-moore-digital-archive

Hit “search.” This opens a new box on the right-hand side. Choose the “notebooks” option and then the dropdown box indicating the notebook you’re working on. Clicking that box once opens a second box with the same notebook number. Click it again.

A message will appear saying that the notebook is not fully loaded. Click “YES,” you want to open it.  A small box will then say “building document.” Click “OK.” 

At this point you will see a screen divided into 3 sections.

Screen Shot 2020-06-13 at 10.27.48 AM.png

The far right (“Image viewer”) will contain MS images of your notebook (it could take a minute for them to load). The page numbers indicated will probably not correspond to the image numbers in Rosenbach files. Use these MMDA  page numbers (including recto/verso) for reference, if required. If page numbers are inaccurate, email Miller and Nikolaus Wasmoen so that the image filenames on the server can be reset appropriately. There’s a Zoom in/out option for each page in the upper right corner. You can rotate images by hitting the letter “r” on your keyboard.

The middle column contains a pre-loaded set of pages corresponding to the length of your notebook, beginning with a “Notebook description” page—drafted as a place-holder until you are ready to enter this material yourself. The pre-loaded pages will have line and page numbers, with each new line marked by the encoding category [blank]. DO NOT delete or type inside [blank] or inside the line numbers (shaded gray) at the end of the line; you will type in the space in between. There will be more line modules than you need for each page; leave unused lines at the foot of each page untouched.

The far left column contains an outline of the TEI-XML encoding's nested hierarchy, or “Markup/Entities.” Do not enter anything directly into this column. As you encode your transcription through TAG entries, markup abbreviations will appear in this column. To check that you have successfully entered an encoding tag, look at the line in this column corresponding to the transcription line in question (click on the transcription line). You may need to click on a triangle in the markup line to open the markup information.

If you need to change the position of a tag in relation to other tags or to move a tag from one line to another, you can click the tag within the markup column and drag it to a new position. You can also delete tags in this column, or in the middle column, by right-clicking on them and selecting “Remove Tag.”

Basic function instructions:

Function

Action

To begin transcription

Always type a space after the [blank] before beginning to transcribe; this will help prevent your moving into the tag area, where transcription is not allowed. This also prevents problems of running into invisible tag barriers (e.g., when you have begin/end “quotation” tags). 

TIP: If you click on the mid-page caret, the markup column disappears; this allows you to use your full screen for the image and transcription columns.

To move from line to line

Use the scroll-down (or up) arrows or move your cursor. The tab function or “<enter>” calls up a note saying “text is not allowed in current tag”—that is, you cannot use these keys to move among lines.

To scroll to the next manuscript page

Hit the page arrow in the Image Viewer column.

To undo the last thing you typed

CTRL + Z

To search within the transcription

CTRL + F

To cut, copy, paste

CTRL + X, CTRL + C, CTRL + P

To rotate the notebook image

Click on the image and press “R” as many times as you need to. The image will rotate 90° each time.

To save your work

Click Save icon box in the taskbar; then “save request” (not “Pull Save Request”). It will ask if you want to “overwrite” existing file: Yes. Only at this point will your changes to the file be saved through GitHub. 

 

SAVE your work frequently! There is no automatic save. Ideally, save at least once a page.

I. Notebook Description

At the start of each notebook is a page of Notebook description that includes a range of preloaded fields. These will need to be filled out (replacing what is preloaded) as transcription progresses or after it is completed. Required fields are:

Notebook description: Provide a physical, bibliographic description of the notebook as object.

   e.g.

Yearbook 1921, red leather binding. Includes 8 pages of pre-printed information of various kinds, e.g. Time Differences, Thermometers; Greatest Altitude in Each State; followed by lined calendar pages divided in half so that each leaf contains two dates. First image with MM's writing is the inside front cover. RML number written in pencil: 1250-27

Notebook start date: The start/end dates of the notebook in format YEAR.MO.DY (e.g. 1923.06.26). If Date or Month are not known, fill in what you do know. (e.g. 1940). 

Notebook end date: ditto.Notebook genre default: The primary genre type of the notebook. If a poetry notebook contains some reading or conversation notes, the genre is still “poetry.” A notebook is "miscellaneous" only if a majority of images contain more than one genre or switch among genres. Common genres include: reading, poetry, conversation, miscellaneous, lecture, concerts, financial, and travel. Mark deviations from the default genre as explained below.

Notebook default author and writing implement: Author default is virtually always MM and implement default is usually black ink. This may differ, e.g., if a notebook is written primarily by MM's mother, MWM, or primarily in pencil. 

Relevant publications: List MM’s publications that are relevant to the notebook—that is, where she drafts or cites material relevant to or used in a later published poem, essay, review, etc.

II. Specific Guidelines for Transcription

Do not repeat default tagging information—e.g., if the initial Notebook Description entry describes the typical page as lined, with pre-print features, or the default writing instrument as black ink, do not repeat this information for each page.  The “Page-level Description” template space above the first transcription line on each page is to be used only for unusual features of that page that cannot be reproduced in print and that has no standard encoding tag, e.g., MM’s sketches, or a drawn arrow between lines, or a large bracket connecting several line. Most pages of most notebooks will require no “Page-level Description.”

1) Transcribe a row of authorial script into one template line (beginning with the encoding category [blank] and concluding with a line number (shaded gray)):

[blank] Text of Line       01

For spaces within rows of print, use the space bar. Approximate MM’s spacing on the page for major gaps. Ignore all minor spacing (e.g., a slightly longer space between words/letters). If MM indents passages (e.g., lines of verse), include indentation; ignore minor differences in left margin.

Where MM leaves white space between rows of print, leave a blank numbered line. 

2) Omit stray marks that have no relevance to punctuation, a word, or to underlining, cancellation, or other meaningful marking category.

3) To represent MM's scansion of poetry, use the WORD prosody mark or a hyphen ( - ) for unstressed syllables on the line above the actual language; GitHub will not accept accent aigu (ˊ) for stressed syllables, so use TAG hi@rend (see Section III below) and describe where the stressed accents fall.

   e.g.

         -          -              -            
    The frog is green and black. <hi@rend = MM places stress marks above “frog,” “green,” and “black”>

4) Representation of a notebook ”line”: type everything that seems to be on the same row of script as one transcribed line, including brief material that slants off at the end of a row of script. If there are more than a few marginal words, or for interlineations, transcribe them on their own row of script and mark with <add> tagging. Extended line-end marginal words may be presented as a vertical line (see X below). MM sometimes interlineates punctuation (ellipses, or page numbers); they should also be marked with <add> tagging, and (if written distinctly above the primary line of script) should be transcribed on their own line.

5)  MM frequently rewrites a word to clarify or writes over an initial word with a different one. Ignore rewriting for clarity if it is of a single letter or if the rewritten word is entirely clear. If the rewriting raises questions of clarity, mark the second instance as an addition using <add> and <del> tags (see I.11 below). This will appear in the central column with the added portion color-coded as green. E.g.:

    rabets

In this instance, MM first writes “rats” then writes over the first two letters to make “bets.”

We are not creating a genetic edition or a record of MM’s composition process; therefore we do not designate whether material was added concurrently or after initial composition of a passage. Readers can see the transcribed page, including MM's use of different writing implements, in her additions, deletions, and rewriting. 

6) If a letter is ambiguously capitalized, assume what is syntactically or bibliographically appropriate. Ditto for punctuation. If appropriate and possible, check source text to determine usage in text she paraphrases or copies from when her own writing is unclear.

7) Put annotation in a note tag located within a numbered line of transcription, nested after the most immediate point within the line to which the note refers or at the beginning of the first line, if the quotation continues from the previous page (see Annotation Guidelines below).

8) Put editorial comment in < > brackets as <!Text of comment!> to indicate that the commentary is not part of the transcription and is for internal use only. Editorial comments will not be published or displayed, but may be useful if you want to call attention to something for a later proofreader or encoder who will be interpreting your transcription, or to keep notes for your own use during transcription and annotation. 

9) Misspelling: leave incorrect spelling and graphic errors without comment (no “sic” or correction); e.g., she often omits the “e” on words that begin “ex”: xist [exist], xcel [excel].

10) All references to notebook numbers, including in annotation, should begin "07" not "VII."  The RML uses VII. The VII/07 difference distinguishes their reference from ours.

11) Transcribe vertically written material in the pre-inserted [vertical line] space following the [blank] line templates for each page. All vertical lines of consecutive text should be transcribed within a single [vertical line], indicating MM’s division of this material into more than one row of script with / .  Use <add> tags for insertions but keep all text in a single transcription line. When there is vertical text in both margins, always transcribe the left margin text first, then the right.

a) In a <!desc!> comment, describe the location of the vertical lines, e.g.: 

[vertical line] <!desc: lines 42-06, left margin!>Clearly schooling education has some connection with sobriety.

b) For vertical lines written in more than one row of script: 

[vertical line] <!desc: right margin, spanning final 6 lines, written as 7 rows of script!> red white & blue one tires of but / the onyx & the / silver / & the peculiar / tall small / this giraffe / Characters 

d) Where MM uses vertical text in distinct units of prose, transcribe them in more than one [vertical line]. Always begin transcription of vertical lines with the text unit closest to the top of the page, e.g.:

[vertical line] <!desc: lines 05-01, left margin!> Conversation

[vertical line] <!desc: lines 31-25, left margin!> It is Pan

[vertical line] <!desc: lines 18-14, right margin!> Indifference

III. Punctuation

1) Make all MM's dashes em-dashes (type two hyphens). Do this whether MM's own dash is long or short and regardless of how much space is left on either side of it. An em-dash has no space preceding or following the punctuation.

2) Do not correct MM's misuse or absence of punctuation; e.g., she writes many contractions without an apostrophe: dont [don't] or cant [can't].

3) In annotation, where syntax demands that a period follow an initial, use only one period, e.g., at the end of a sentence, the initials U.S. should be written "U.S." not "U.S.."

4) Between page numbers and dates, in annotation and in transcribing MM’s usage, use a hyphen, with no spaces: e.g., 1923-1942.  

5) Where MM uses ellipses, always use a space between the dots. Space the dots evenly, regardless of MM’s spacing on the page, but count and reproduce her number of dots. Also, where MM seems to be drawing short dashes rather than ellipses, transcribe as standard ellipses, with dots. Only use dashes if this is very clearly the punctuation intended.

IV. General Information about Metadata and Tags

All metadata will be encoded using standard TEI-XML “tags” preloaded into the CRWC’s interface by our encoding schema, as specified below. 

The middle column of the CWRC-writer has a taskbar at the top, with the word “Tags” on a button in the far left corner. Click on the “Tags” button for access to a drop-down menu of pre-loaded tags. Some do not apply to us and can be ignored (e.g., “att”). Others have CWRC titles that do not correspond to MMDA previous marker tags or common-sense designations (e.g., “bibl” = source). Below is a table identifying items occurring frequently in notebooks (column 1), ways we have encoded them in the past (column 2), and the TEI “tag” in the GitHub writer. 

 

Once you have selected a tag from the drop-down menu, a new window with further options will appear. In some cases, such as for “note,” “del,” and “add,” simply click “Ok” on the bottom right and the tag you have selected will be inserted. For other tags, use the pop-up window to specify the required attribute (signified in the table below by the information that follows “@”). 

Example: to encode underlining, select the letters or words that are underlined:

1. Click “Tags,” then “hi” [highlighted]

2. As attribute, click “rend”

3. A text box will open at the top of this pop-up; type in “underline”

4. Hit “Ok” at the bottom of the pop-up box and you will be returned to your 3-column page. 

5. Once you have typed in a specified attribute several times, the pop-up box may provide that option for you to click on after you type in its first letter, e.g. typing “u” in the “rend” pop-up box may call up “underline.”

The selected text will now appear in the central column as underlined. (For some tags there will not be a visual marker of the encoding.) “Rend” (rendition) is the most frequently required attribute. Equal marks in the chart below indicate the language you will type into the box after hitting “rend” or other attribute

Item in notebook text

MS_Word_Encdoing Example

TEI Tag

Addition

[add]

<add>

Annotations

MS_Word_footnotes

<note>

Color

[color=pencil]

<hi@rend=pencil> [see below for other “color” options]

Deletion

[del]

<del>

*Draft

[draft of published text]

<seg@type=draft>; if long passage, add “draft begin” “draft end”

Foreign Language

[lang=French]

<foreign@xml:lang=fr> [see below for other common language codes]

Genre

[g=r]

<seg@type=genre value>; if long passage, add begin/end; if shorter than one line, mark appropriate words using mouse and then tag the marked phrase. Acceptable genre values:

draft

conversation

reading

verse

poetry

prose

[see VII below for details]

Illegible_words

[????]

<gap@extent=[# of illegible characters]>

Image description

[imagedesc]

[Page-level Description] template line, <!describe image(s) within editorial brackets!> This is only for non-semantic unusual aspects of a page—e.g., sketches, or page cross-outs, or circled words 

Shorthand “the”

[!shorthand!]the

<hi@rend=shorthand the>

Source

[source]

<biblio@type=[begin/end]>

Special character

MSWord formatting

<hi@rend=[the character or font desired (italics, accent aigu, o umlaut)]>.

Underline

MSWord_formatting

<hi@rend=underline>

Quotation

[qu]

<quote@rend=[begin/end]>

*To mark a draft requires a note (annotation tag) as well as <seg@type=draft>. 

ALERT:it is almost always necessary to type a few words before and after you want to insert a tag (except at the end of the page) since otherwise you will be prevented from typing other material on that line. For example, if you use “hi” to designate an accent aigu (Tappé) and then attempt to follow that name with an annotation, giving information about Tappé, the program may imagine you are trying to add a note within the [hi] tag. Best to:

•   First type Tappe

•   Then leave a space and add the <note> tag and information; inside the note you should also use <hi@rend=accent aigu> to produce Tappé

•   Then return to Tappe in your text to add <highlight@rend>, to make it Tappé. 

•   The text you see on the visual screen will still present Tappe without accent. To make sure you have tagged the word correctly, check the Markup (left-hand) column, where you will see “hi” on the appropriate line.

TIP: it is simplest to transcribe all words on a page and then go back to insert encoding tags.

Copying/Correcting markup tags:

To copy/paste/remove tags: use the right click on your mouse. It gives you all these (and other options). Once you’ve copied a tag, you can edit it. To delete a tag, click the “Remove Tag” option in taskbar or delete a few letters of the word where you have added the tag; a box will pop up asking if you want to delete the tag: yes. It is also possible to delete or move a tag within the Markup column (see above).

You may use right-click function to “paste” a note (or any other entity) ONLY once; if you want to paste the same tag on several pages, you have to recopy it each time.

To copy text from a Word file, or any other source, you have to copy line by line and GitHub typically will accept only standard characters—no bold, italics, underline, etc. You may want to copy the text first into an HTML stripper (such as https://www.striphtml.com/) before copying and pasting it into the CWRC-writer.

TEI/XML basic tagging principle: For tags that contain child text or child elements, there must be an “open” and “closing” tag—e.g., on every transcription page on which MM quotes a text, you must tag the beginning and the conclusion of the quotation. (All tags require opening/closing markup, but in some such as “add,” “delete,” or underline—which typically involve only a few words within one line of text--they are automatically included in the preloaded tag.) Tags may be embedded within each other—e.g., within a quoted passage MM may use underlining or a different writing utensil. CWRC effectively controls tagging to ensure that embedded tags are appropriately positioned. If the program tells you a tag is not “allowed,” it is likely you are inadvertently attempting to place a new tag inside one already present. Checking the markup entity column should allow you to position the new tag correctly. The CWRC writer will not remind you to include a closing tag for elements.

Illegible words should be marked, as indicated in the table, with <gap@extent=>, adding a numeral specifying the number of illegible letters/characters in the word in the text box (e.g., 2 or 5). Use your best guess for the length of the word in characters. Below are specific types of illegibility that recur:

a) <gap@extent=4>  = 4 contiguous characters that are indecipherable (you type the numeral “4” into the box;

b) <gap@extent=2> <gap@extent=4>  = 2 indecipherable words, of two and four characters, respectively.

c) Bou<gap@extent=3> = word beginning “Bou” followed by 3 illegible characters; flo<gap@extent=2>d = word beginning “flo” and ending “d,” with two illegible characters in the middle.

d) If you can make a guess, but are not sure, highlight the guessed-at part and click on the <unclear> tag. e.g. <unclear>When Pigs Fly. The entire highlighted phrase will be tagged as unclear. 

V. Addition and Deletion

Transcribe inserted or interlineated words on their own row of script, above or below the primary horizontal line of writing, as MM indicates, using the tag <add>. If a single word is inserted very close to the row of horizontal script, it may be written within the horizontal line, using <add>. If MM writes a few words at the end of a row of script that curve into the margin, these may be transcribed as part of the horizontal line without <add>.

Only mark cancellations when they are specific to particular words; horizontal lines drawn across all or most of a page and slanted or wavy lines cancelling passages of 2 or more lines will be described in the [Page-level Description] template line, e.g. [Page-level Description] <!MM cancels the top half of the page with several spiraling lines!>.

For additions and specific cancellations, highlight the word(s)/letter(s) you want to add or delete, and click <add> or <del> from the drop-down tag menu. It will automatically mark the beginning and end of the tag. If there is a delete that runs across more than one line, you will have to tag the material in each line. Text that has been tagged <add> will appear in green; text that has been tagged <del> will be represented as struck-through and in red. In poetry notebooks, MM interlineates text in complex ways. Do the best you can to indicate added phrases and lines in ways that make sense of her composition, remembering that the primary purpose is clarification for readers, not exact mirroring of the visual page.

VI. Annotation

For annotation, select <note> from the drop-down menu and click OK. A box will open on the transcription page in shaded background, into which you can type the required annotation. To conclude the note, move the cursor to the next place you want to type. For special features within a note, use appropriate tags; e.g., to italicize a title, click <hi@rend=italics>. A note will appear as one long line of script in GitHub, but on the MMDA page it will appear in form appropriate for the viewer.

For guidelines on annotation content and placement, see the Annotation Guidelines below.

VII. Page-level Color

Only use implement color tags to indicate when the implement differs from the default color for the notebook—which might be for an entire page or only for part. If a notebook default is black ink but a page is in blue ink, use the color tag at the beginning of the page (beginning of first line). Do not tag every line <hi@rend=blue> and do not put this information in [Page-level Description]. If MM changes utensil/color within lines or from line to line, then note these changes in the words, lines, or line clusters in which they occur. For writing utensil and color, use the tag <hi@rend=>, substituting any of the following values:

black (black ink, this is the general default)

blue (blue ink)

red (red ink)

purple (purple ink)

green (green ink)

pencil (gray lead pencil)

pencilgreen (green pencil)

crayonblue (blue crayon)

If MM uses a non-default implement for more than a single line, tag the first word you want to designate as a different color (<hi@rend=pencil begin>) and then at the point of utensil change tag both <hi@rend=pencil end> and, if MM does not return to the default color for the notebook, tag the new utensil use (<hi@rend=blue>). If MM returns to default color (e.g., black ink) do not tag <hi@rend=black>. You would in this case note only the end of the departure from black ink (<hi@rend=pencil end>). If an entire page departs from the default color, you must indicate <hi@rend=pencil[or other value] end> after the last transcribed words on the page.

VIII. Drafts of Particular Poems or Essays

If MM is clearly writing toward a later published poem, essay, review, or other publication, use the draft genre tag: <seg@type=draft>. Additionally, enter a note saying “MM drafts toward [poem or essay title].” In cases where the language is strongly suggestive of a later publication but one could not be positive she is drafting, use <seg@type=draft> and note that: “MM may be drafting toward [poem or essay title]”—or other language appropriately indicating the circumstance. 

1) Assuming the drafted material includes more than a few words, indicate where on the page MM begins and ends the draft: <seg@type=draft begin/end>. If it is only a few words, highlight the relevant words and they can be included in a single genre tag (in that case, begin/end is preloaded).

2) Where the draft resumes on the following page, use the same tags for that and every following page as long as the draft continues: e.g., top of page, <seg@type=draft begin>; end of page, <seg@type=draft end>.

3) Where MM is drafting two or more poems simultaneously, use <seg@type=draft> and list all poems being drafted in the annotation. Where some lines in the middle of a page or draft section concern a second poem, or other publication, in addition to the first, refer in annotation to where draft sections occur. Do not use line numbers, since viewers will not be able to see line numbers on their screens. E.g.:

Note: MM drafts toward “Marriage” throughout this page; in the middle of the page, she also drafts toward “Silence.”

4) In the annotation, if the publication has not already been cited in a note, give first publication date. Publication information should be given only once in a notebook.

IX. Page-level Genre

The genre tag at the page level will be used only for text that varies from the Notebook genre default. To note change of genre, use <seg@type=> and type in the genre. If there are more than a few lines in the new genre, indicate begin/end. Do not indicate resumption of notebook default genre, e.g., if MM includes conversation within a reading notebook, mark the beginning and ending of the “conversation” genre but do not tag the resumption of “reading” as genre. If MM continues a non-default genre across more than one page, close the genre at the end of each page and re-open it at the beginning of the next, using <seg@type=> tags.

Acceptable genre values include:

draft

conversation (when a genre is mostly likely "conversation" but it is unclear, use “conversation?” Make your best guess.)

reading (any material working from a written source, starting with the date on which she is reading, including citation of source and page numbers, through actual reading notes) 

verse (for where she quotes published verse from others)

poetry (where MM drafts poetry)

prose (where MM writes prose that does not seem to be quoted written text or conversation)

X. Image Description

A description of any special features contained at the image or page level, including drawings or expressive markings by MM and features of the MS page itself worth noting, such as tears  or inserted items. The image description note goes at the top of a page in the [Page-level Description] template line, within editorial brackets <!  !> and should include all relevant description for that page.

e.g.

[Page-level Description] <!MM draws a straight line down the center of the page and cancels all but a few words of lines 21-27 with large swirls. In line 05 MM circles “heart” with a line leading to the word “red” in line 06 below. Lines 07-08 are followed by parallel straight lines in the right margin. MM draws large parentheses linking lines 34-35.!> 

Marks, squiggles, wavy lines, etc: For non-representational marks (circled or bracketed passages, cancellations across several lines, arrows, marginal lines apparently of emphasis), also provide concise description in the [Page-level Description] template line, as indicated above.

Locate a drawing in relation to line numbers, if possible. If there is no obvious text providing a location indicator for a drawing (e.g., when MM draws an image that takes up all or most of a page) say "occupies most of the page" or use other plain descriptive language.

When MM draws across two pages (verso/recto), describe drawing on each page separately, specifying that it is part of a 2-page drawing. This means that the initial part of the image description will differ for the verso and recto but the description of the full figure will be identical for both pages. 

For text that crosses a page boundary, also transcribe MM's text on each page separately, even if your page-level transcription stops mid-word. In annotation, give the full transcribed text across both pages. Text annotation should precede the first text written on the page, that is, go in the same position as page-initial quote tag; annotation on second page will be identical to that on the first. 

e.g.

0031-verso

[Page-level Description] <!On top two-thirds of the page, back wing and rear body of a grasshopper, part of a two-page drawing of a carved wooden locust, an insect with long, veined wings. MM renders an Egyptian toilet box from a photograph in the Illustrated London News.!>

[blank] 1Toilet box which da                         01

[blank]                 22nd Eg                               02

[blank] Ill. London News 26                           03

[blank] may have contained a                      04

[blank] of the locust which was sup            05

[blank] or cosmetic value.                             06

[blank]                                     lid of the        07

[blank] form the wings2                                 08

1 Text across both pages, without cancellations, reads: Toilet box which dates from about the / 22nd Egyptian Dynasty from Saqqara / Ill. London News 26 July 1930 / may have contained a preparation from the flesh /of the locust which was supposed to have a medicinal / or cosmetic value. The wings are movable and / form the lid of the box.

 

 

__________________________________________

0031-recto

[Page-level Description] <!On top two-thirds of the page, head and thorax of a grasshopper, part of a two page drawing of a carved wooden locust, an insect with long, veined wings. MM renders an Egyptian toilet box from a photograph in the Illustrated London News.!>

[blank] 1tes from about the                             01

[blank] yptian Dynasty from Saqqara            02

[blank] July 1930                                                03

[blank] preparation from the flesh                 04

[blank] posed to have a medicinal                 05

[blank] The wings are movable and              06

[blank]                            box.2                            07

1  Text across both pages, without cancellations, reads: Toilet box which dates from about the / 22nd Egyptian Dynasty from Saqqara / Ill. London News 26 July 1930 / may have contained a preparation from the flesh /of the locust which was supposed to have a medicinal / or cosmetic value. The wings are movable and / form the lid of the box. 

NOTE: To simplify, the given example does not include the quote, biblio, or other tags one would use in marking the passages above.

XI. Quotation and Sources

Use <quote@rend=> for any material quoted or paraphrased from a written source, identified or not. <quote@rend=begin> indicates the beginning of a quotation and <quote@rend=end> indicates its conclusion. Do not indicate a new quotation for each new page citation within that same text. Whether or not MM concludes quoting from a source at the end of a notebook page, use <quote@rend=end> at the end of the page. 

When MM quotes from a single text across more than one page, mark the beginning of all pages following the first with <quote@rend=begin>, followed by an annotation giving the source quoted in abbreviated form. The first quotation tag that marks a particular text is followed by the annotation for that text. Do not repeat annotation information at the end of the quoted material.

Use <bibl@type=> for the title, naming, or citation of material MM is reading or from which she is quoting or paraphrasing. Use <bibl@type=begin> and <bibl@type=end> respectively at the start and end of the source. This will not include page numbers or other location within the text, that is, the <bibl@type=end> tag will precede MM’s indication of the page(s) from which she first quotes, or to which she refers. The exception to this rule is when MM places page number information in the middle of publication information. E.g.

    <bibl@type=begin> Lit. Digest 6 Dec 1930
      Lost & Vanishing Birds          215-217
      Charles Dixon   John Macqueen  
      London 1918<bibl@type=end>
      <quote@rend=begin> The Dido alludes to the

XII. Special Characters, Underlining, Shorthand, Non-standard text

For all special characters (underlining, italics, foreign accents) use <hi@rend=> and specify the special character or font desired.

Similarly, when MM uses non-standard features or the shorthand symbol for “the,” use<hi@rend>.  For shorthand “the,” transcribe the mark as “the” in the text line; use <hi@rend=shorthand the> as tag. All other non-standard type or shorthand characters are ⸫ to indicate “therefore”; if you cannot insert this symbol, enter a note explaining MM’s use. If you find a shorthand symbol that recurs in a notebook you are transcribing, contact Cris (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) to let her know and we will decide whether this should also be represented through <hi@rend=>.

XIII. Foreign Languages

Mark the presence of a foreign language using foreign@xml:lang, and type in a standard code to indicate the language being used, if available. If not, type in the name of the language. If the words in a foreign language do not exceed one row of script, mark the phrase with your cursor and tag once. If the use of a foreign language exceeds one row, mark the end of the use of that language by repeating the <foreign> tag. (No need to repeat specification of the language.)

e.g.  <foreign@xml:lang=fr>L'Abbé Tempête Arnaud de Rancé

Common language codes include: 

“fr” (French)

“de” (German)

“es” (Spanish, Castilian) 

“it” (Italian)

“la” (Latin)

The full list of language codes from IANA is maintained online at https://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry/language-subtag-registry.

Tagging is not required for words and phrases that are commonly used in English.

Annotation Guidelines

Put annotation in a note tag located within a numbered line of transcription, nested after the most immediate point within the line to which the note refers or at the beginning of the first line, if the quotation continues from the previous page.

Notes containing annotation should be placed after commas and periods, but before em-dashes.

General principles

Our goal is to provide basic useful information to help the reader navigate MM's notebook pages without engaging in scholarly interpretation or providing all information a scholar might desire. Commentary on, for example, the extent to which MM paraphrases rather than quotes her sources or on the numbers of times she repeats variations of a phrase in drafting a poem, will go in the editor's "Introduction" to the notebook. Obvious cultural references do not require annotation unless there is a particular connection with MM important to that context.

Annotation should always be brief. People important to MM will have substantial entries in the Glossary, and a brief note—e.g., on Pound—will have a hyperlink to the longer Glossary note. Only annotate references to family members if it is necessary for comprehension—e.g., if MM uses a nickname.

I. Specific Guidelines for Annotation

1) Except when embedded in quoted material, Marianne Moore should be referred to as MM in all annotations. Family names should also be abbreviated: MWM and JWM for Mary Warner Moore and John Warner Moore. If the context is unclear, add a descriptor in the annotation, such as "MWM, MM's mother."

2) Commentary should be brief and primarily factual.

3) Annotate all articles from which MM quotes. If you cannot find information about an article, do not annotate it.

4) Do not include Web links in annotation.

5) If you locate a web link or other source for MM's reading material, make a list of the appropriate links or PDF sources in a separate (Word) document. Give specific information for each link or source: Notebook and image number, and title/location of source. When you have finished transcribing the notebook, send it to Cris as a separate document. Please hold on to the PDF files until either Cris or Nick requests them. Much or all of this material will be posted in “Moore's Sources,” under “Criticism and Commentary.”

6) Typically, do not cite the material MM misquotes or paraphrases in a notebook. Often her quotations are inexact, and in Poetry Notebooks she intermingles note-taking with composition. If she misquotes a famous source and the quotation is brief (a line or two of poetry; less than one sentence in prose), you may provide an exact quotation of the original material, if it seems relevant. Similarly, MM sometimes gets page numbers wrong. If it seems crucially important to correct this information, do so. Otherwise, ignore. Interested scholars will determine the accuracy of MM's quotations.

7) Use biblio@type=begin/end and provide annotation only for texts from which MM quotes. When she lists books or essays but does not quote from them, do not use biblio tags and do not annotate unless the source has clear importance to MM or to modernism (e.g., MM may mention or quote from this source in a published poem or essay). If the content of the list is not clear from context, you might annotate the list as a whole, e.g., “MM lists several books about eighteenth-century printing.”

8) Do not provide line numbers in annotation. The viewer will not see line numbers. Instead provide a general description of where a phenomenon occurs, if it is not throughout the page; e.g., MM drafts toward “The Jerboa” until the horizontal line drawn across the page, then toward “The Plumet Basilisk.”

II. Annotating Persons, Places or Institutions

Persons, places, or institutions MM mentions will appear in the glossary, and there will be a link between appropriate notes and glossary items. In the note, give minimal information. 

1) To annotate an author, give name, birth/death dates, and very brief information: e.g.,

Davis, Frank Cecil [1892-1990]. English art critic, author of numerous books about the art market and collecting, and of the recurring Illustrated London News feature, “A Page for Collectors.”

Only annotate authors of articles if they recur or if the people are themselves important. Annotate other people mentioned only if they are important to MM (or modernism) and where an annotation significantly clarifies the context. Shakespeare, Confucius, and other famous people should not receive annotations unless there is a specific link to MM's publications or providing a date contributes significantly to the context (e.g., of a Chinese emperor/dynasty). If information is clear from MM's notes, annotation is unnecessary.

2) No individual should receive more than one annotation per notebook, regardless how often s/he is cited or mentioned, unless a new mention reveals new connection to MM. Do not refer to specific previous or later image or page; if it seems important, you could note “MM quotes other poems of Pope’s earlier in this notebook.” The Glossary will include information about, and links to, all mentions of any given author. 

III. Annotating Quoted or Paraphrased Texts

1) Quotations should be annotated to the extent necessary to clarify the source of the text; do not provide comparative text. Do not corroborate page numbers. If possible do give the edition from which she quotes. 

2) Repeated sources: repeat annotation for quotation on each page that MM quotes that text—e.g., if she quotes a single text on several successive pages, repeat it in abbreviated form at the beginning of the first line of transcription on each page.This annotation should come before any transcribed text and before <quote@rend=begin>; in the note, the abbreviated reference should be followed by “(see earlier note).”

<!first annotation> Davis, Frank. “A Page for Collectors: Persian Art, the Small Collector's Point of View.” Illustrated London News (10 January 1931): 67.

<!following references> Davis, Frank. “Persian Art” (see earlier note).

If the author contributes a regular series (e.g., Davis, “A Page for Collectors”) refer to it by abbreviated distinguishing sub-title in references following the initial annotation—as indicated above. Do not repeat note on the author.

3) Where there is no author's name, refer to an abbreviated title of the source.

e.g. “The Jewel” (see earlier note).

4) If information is unknown about a person annotated, use a question mark where appropriate.

e.g. Smith, John [1953?-2003].

5) Make separate annotations for an author's name and for the title of a work, when both are necessary. A hyperlink to an author's name in the Glossary will be in the note on that author; similarly, a hyperlink to a publication MM cites will appear in the note, and link reader to the Glossary.

6) Do not annotate journal titles. The Glossary will provide standard information for all journals mentioned—unless the context points to a specific MM publication or engagement with that journal.

7) Typically place source annotation following all relevant information about the source (author, title, publication information—but not page number cited). If this would place two annotations—one for author and one for source—in the same position, move annotation for source earlier. E.g.

[18] <biblio@type=begin> Atlantic Monthly Oct 1935

[19] Proust <biblio@type=end> <!source annotation here>  Havelock Ellis<!author annotation here; Ellis is author of essay on Proust>

The quote@rend=begin tags typically begin after the source information. Where MM gives source information at the end, or in the middle, of a quotation, provide annotation of source either at the beginning of the quotation (preceding quote@rend=begin tag) or following her reference to the source (following biblio@type=end tag). Do not provide two notes to the same source. Typically:

[21] <biblio@type=begin>Ill. London News 18 Oct 1930<biblio@type=end> <!annotation goes here>

[22] p. 13 <quote@rend=begin> on the hot afternoon . . . <quote@rend=end> 

8) Where a quotation is continued in a vertical line or vertical lines, do not repeat the annotation.

Archived: MS Word Transcription Guidelines

Please refer to the following guidelines for transcription, annotation, and the glossary. We continuously update these guidelines to reflect our most current practices, so some points may differ from previous versions. For a list of Guideline Revisions, see the bottom of this page.

These guidelines for creating MMDA transcriptions in MS Word (for subsequent conversion into TEI XML) are still in the process of being developed. If you are assisting with the transcription or annotation of a notebook and have any questions, contact Cristanne Miller or Nikolaus Wasmoen.

General principles

Our central aim is to produce a clear and accurate transcription of the words written on the page. We are not attempting to recreate the exact visual layout of the original document.

Numbered lines contain only: authorial handwriting, superscript numerals pointing to footnotes, and [tag] markers, as specified below.

In your initial transcription, editorial commentary or description should appear nested at the appropriate line-, page- or image-level depending on the scope of reference and type of information:

1) in an editorial comment tag bracketed with [!  !] to indicate that the commentary is not part of the transcription and is for internal use only;

2) in an [imagedesc] tag to indicate that it describes the image or the page;

3) in a footnote located within a numbered line of transcription, nested after the most immediate point within the line to which the footnote refers or as immediately following the [01] line indicator, if the quotation continues on the previous page (see Annotation Guidelines below).

The word "image" designates the digital copy of a MM notebook or manuscript page, by number—e.g., image 001 would refer to the digital representation of the first image of a manuscript, which may contain one or more "pages" depending on how the notebook is structured and how it has been photographed. Many "images" contain a facing verso and recto opening. Those images will generate two "pages" of transcript, whereas some notebook images only contain one "page."

I. Specific Guidelines for Transcription

1) Save each transcription file in MS WORD .docx format: title of file should be: [Number].[Genre].[Date(s)].[initials of editor].docx: e.g. "07.03.11.Misc.1929-1940.CM.docx."   

2) Transcribe a row of authorial script as one numbered line—each row of script receives a new line preceded by a bracketed numeral followed by a single space, e.g. "[01] Text of Line number 1." Where MM leaves white space between rows of print, leave a blank numbered line. See V below. 

3) Each notebook page will constitute a transcription "page" (whether it continues onto more than one WORD.docx page or not).

4) We do not reproduce non-authorial marks or pre-printed words, although in specific cases if this content might be crucial to transcription or to understanding the manuscript writing we could address it in an editorial image description (see VIII) or an annotation.

5) Omit stray marks that have no relevance to punctuation, a word, or to underlining, cancellation, or other authorial mark with clear relation to the text.

6) Representation of a notebook "line": type everything that seems to be on the same row of script as one transcribed line, including brief material that slants off at the end of a row of script (if there are more than a few words, they should be represented on their own row of script or described as a vertical line; see X below).

7) Illegible words should be marked as question marks within brackets:

a) [????] = 4 contiguous characters that are indecipherable;

b) [??] [????] = 2 indecipherable words, of two and four letters, respectively. Use your best guess for the length of the word in characters

c) Bou[???]= word beginning "Bou" followed by 3 unclear characters; flo[??]d = word with two unclear characters in the middle.

d) If you can make a guess, but are not sure, enclose the guessed-at part in an [unclear] tag. e.g. [unclear]When Pigs Fly[/unclear].

e) If you want to suggest multiple variants or alternative readings, just add [alt#] tags inside [unclear]. e.g. [unclear][alt1]When Pigs Fly[/alt1][alt2]When Pugs Flow[/alt2][/unclear]. 

f) MM frequently rewrites a word to clarify or writes over an initial word with a different one. Ignore simple rewriting, especially if it is of a single letter or if the rewritten word is entirely clear. If the rewriting raises questions of clarity, mark the second instance as an addition using an [add] tag: e.g. [add]rats[/add]; typically she will have deleted the first instance, which should also be noted using the [del] tag: e.g. [del]rats[/del][add]rats[/add]. See I.11 below.

8) If a letter is ambiguously capitalized, assume what is syntactically or bibliographically appropriate (where there is no source text to check from). Ditto for punctuation.

9) Put annotation in MS Word footnotes.

10) Where MM uses square brackets in her text, use a curly bracket to designate MM's usage {  }  and describe the use of square brackets below the numbered lines for the page, as one would describe any other non-representational marking (see VIII). This enables programmers to distinguish the square brackets used for tagging from MM's own use of this punctuation.

e.g. [imagedesc]MM draws square brackets around the words on line 23.[/imagedesc]

11) We are not creating a genetic edition or a full record of Moore's composition process; our aim is to provide a transcription of the words as they appear in the facsimile. As a result, we generally do not designate the timing or grouping of specific additions/revisions (i.e., whether material was added concurrently or after initial composition of a passage). We assume that readers can see the transcribed page, including MM's use of different writing implements. If, however, MM writes over a word that is still legible, use [del] and [add] tags to record all of the visible words or characters: e.g. th[del]e[/del][add]is[/add]. In this case, MM has written over the "e" to change "the" to "this." In cases where the editor feels it is necessary, additional clarification may be provided in notes.

12) Misspelling: leave incorrect spelling and MM's graphic errors without comment (no "sic" or correction); e.g., she often omits the "e" on words that begin "ex": xist [exist], xcel [excel], and so on.

13) All references to notebook numbers, including in annotation, should begin "07" not "VII." 

II. Punctuation

1) Make all MM's dashes em-dashes. Do this whether MM's own dash is long or short and regardless of how much space is left on either side of it. An em-dash has no space preceding or following the punctuation.

2) Do not correct MM's misuse or absence of punctuation; e.g., she writes many contractions without an apostrophe: dont [don't] or cant [can't].

3) In annotation, where syntactically a period should follow an initial, use only one period, e.g., at the end of a sentence, the initials U.S. should be written "U.S." not "U.S.."

III. Metadata and Bracketed Keyword Tags

Transcriptions should be done using plain text, written in standard characters, except for the MS Word footnotes used for annotation. To facilitate later TEI XML encoding, we use bracketed typographical tags to add structure, styling, and other metadata to the transcription files. All metadata appears in square brackets surrounding simple keywords or abbreviations, "tags," that correspond to what later are transformed to conform with the MMDA's TEI XML encoding schema. Eventually these tags will be available within our online editor tool so that we don't have to enter them manually each time.  

Some tags will be "empty," meaning that they do not contain any "child" text or elements. An example would be [image=0012], where the tag does not have a separate or second closing set of brackets.

For tags that contain child text or child elements, there will be an "open" and a "closing" set of brackets: e.g. "[source]MM's naming or citation of a source [/source]" where "[source]" indicates the start point of the citation or title and "[/source]" indicates the end. The closing tag always starts with a slash "[/tag]."

You can embed multiple tags within each other, such as "[add][???]tilus[/add]" where the uncertainty tag, [???] and the bit of text that comes after it "tilus" are both contained within the same parent element ("add"). This means that MM added a word that begins with 3 unclear characters and ends with "tilus."

You cannot have tags that contain the opening or closing of their own parent element: for example, "na[add][?????[/add]s]" would be invalid, because the uncertainty tag is both a child and a parent of the [add] tag. The correct way to handle this case could be to nest the tags like this "[add]na[?????]s[/add]," indicating that a word was added that begins with "na" followed by 5 illegible characters and then "s."

Do not add spaces between bracketed tags and authorial text where none exists in the original document, or these will be interpreted as intentional spaces within the subsequent TEI XML encoded transcription.

IV. Scansion

To represent MM's scansion of poetry, use the WORD prosody mark or a hyphen ( - ) for unstress and accent aigu (ˊ) for stress on the line above the actual language.

e.g.

     -     ˊ    -      ˊ       -        ˊ    
The frog is green and black.

V. Spacing

Although MS Word spacing between words will have to be reinserted after translation into TEI XML (because Word spacing does not register as a space in TEI XML translation), try to approximate the spacing generally on the page for ease of reference in proofreading.

Verse Indentation

In transcribing poems MM quotes (that is, not her own drafted lines in poetry notebooks), mark a passage with consistent indentation or spacing with [space=#] tags:

e.g.

[01] [space=5]This is all
[02] [space=5]she wrote in
[03] [space=5]this indented passage.

Vertical spaces

Where MM skips 1 or more lines in writing, indicate the spaces by leaving a blank line on your page; the example below shows a skipped line (vertically) and a major indentation, approximately indicated, horizontally:

e.g.

[12] [color=pencil]rational at the time[/color]
[13]
[14]                     Spectator

VI. Editorial Comments

Editorial comments and any child elements or text they might contain will not be published or displayed, but may be useful if you want to call attention to something for a later proofreader or encoder who will be interpreting your transcription, or to keep notes for your own use during transcription and annotation. Insert a comment of any length at the appropriate spot in the transcription in the following form.

e.g.

[! This is how to write a comment. !]

[! This is how to write a comment
that spans more than one line. !]

VII. Notebook Level Metadata

These fields will be part of the Template file that you open when you are starting a new notebook transcription. You will only fill out the Notebook Level Metadata fields once for each notebook transcription file.

NotebookID

A standardized MMDA notebook ID number, using the Rosenbach numbering system. Do not use roman numerals. 

e.g. [notebookid=07.03.11]

NotebookStartDate and NotebookEndDate

The start/end dates of the notebook in format YEAR.MO.DY.

e.g.

[notebookstartdate=1929.06.26]
[notebookenddate=1940]

If Date or Month are not known, just fill in what you do know. In this example, the exact start date is known, but the end date is only known to the year.

NotebookGenreDefault

The primary genre type of the notebook. If a poetry notebook contains some reading or conversation notes, it would still be described generally as a "Poetry" notebook. A notebook is "Miscellaneous" only if a majority of images contain more than one genre or switch genres.

Common Notebook Level Genre Codes (more to be added as needed): 

r = reading 

misc = miscellaneous 

conv = conversation

p = poetry

l = lecture

concert = concerts

fin = financial

t = travel

e.g.

[notebookgenredefault=r] indicates that only genres besides reading notes would be tagged in this notebook.

To switch the genre within a notebook, use a [g=genre_code] tag. Any text that is not contained in a [g] genre tag will be automatically treated as the default genre for that notebook.

NB: Remember to include the closing [/g] genre tag to indicate the end of a non-default genre passage;  if MM continues a non-default genre across more than one page, close the genre [/g] at the end of a page and re-open it (e.g., [g=r]) at the beginning of the next.

e.g.

[16]      & amazement because of its uncertainty[/g]
[17]
[18]    With simplicity & not w irony—
[19]    ivory white oyster white    without much stirring up
[20] [g=r]88  So one adds this brief position

In these lines MM moves from reading notes to poetry and then back to reading notes. Because the default genre is poetry, there is no [g=poetry][/g] tag for the middle two lines.

NotebookDescription

Provide a physical, bibliographic description of the whole notebook.

e.g.

[notebookdescription] Yearbook 1921, red leather binding. Includes  8 pages of pre-printed information of various kinds, e.g. Time Differences, Thermometers; Greatest Altitude in Each State; followed by lined calendar pages divided in half so that each leaf contains two dates. First image with MM's writing is the inside front cover. RML number written in pencil: 1250-27 [/notebookdescription]

NotebookEditor

Identifies the person who made the initial primary transcription of the notebook, with annotation and introduction, and when it was started/finished; if multiple editors, include details about who did what.

e.g.

[notebookeditor]Cristanne Miller, begin 05/01/2015, end 10/15/2015, transcribed and annotated, pages 1-50.[/notebookeditor]


[notebookeditor]Robin Schulze, begin 08/16/2015, end 08/21/2015, transcribed and proofed, pages 51-60[/notebookeditor]

NotebookEdit or NotebookProof or NotebookCorrect

Add a new entry for each batch of proofing, revisions, corrections, or (if made by the primary editor, "edits") made after the initial transcription was completed. The site will store backups of earlier states of these files, but we should document when changes were made.

e.g.

[notebookproof]Heather Cass White, begin 08/25/2015, end 09/26/2015, proofed transcription and notes, pages 1-30[/notebookproof]

[notebookedit]Cristanne Miller, begin 02/22/2015, end 08/24/2015, edited transcription and footnotes, pages 1-30[/notebookedit]

Further Notebook Metadata Fields

Additional notebook-wide metadata can be gathered automatically using the embedded tags in the body of the transcription, such as a list of all the poems being drafted or of all of the writing implements being used within a given notebook. The editors do not need to create or maintain such lists during the initial transcription process.

Metadata defaults

"Hand" default is always MM; writing implement default is always black ink. Only note a new default if it differs from these assumptions (such as a notebook written primarily by MM's mother, MWM, or one written primarily in pencil). If a change for the default continues for more than a page, still only note the beginning and ending of the change once (not per line or per page).

VIII. Image-level Metadata 

Image Number

The number of the image based on the standardized filenames. This will appear at the top of each WORD  page above the numbered lines

e.g.

[imagenumber=0002][page=r.0002]
[01]
[02]

Image Description

A description of any special features contained at the image or page level, including drawings or expressive markings by MM, as well as features of the image itself worth noting, such as tears, shadows, discoloration, or inserted items. The [imagedesc] always goes at the end of a transcription page, following all horizontal and vertical line numbers. The description of all drawn or expressive features on the page goes in a single tag.

e.g.

[imagedesc]MM draws a straight line down the center of the page and cancels all but a few words of lines 21-27 with large swirls. In line 05 MM circles “heart” with a line leading to the word “red” in line 06 below. Lines 07-08 are followed by parallel straight lines in the right margin. MM draws large parentheses linking lines 34-35. [/imagedesc]

Locate the drawing in relation to line numbers, if possible. If there is no obvious text to link the [imagedesc] to, e.g., when MM draws an image that takes up all or most of a page, then say "occupies most of the page" or use other plain descriptive language.

When MM draws across two pages (verso/recto), describe drawing on each page separately and as part of a 2-page drawing. This means that the initial [imagedesc] of the drawing will differ for the verso and recto but the description of the full figure will be identical for both pages. Also transcribe MM's text on each page separately, even if it is written across page margins and your transcription stops mid-word. Then add annotation that gives full transcribed text across both pages. Text annotation should precede the first text written on the page, that is, go in the same position as page-initial [qu]; annotation on second page will follow "(see earlier note)" model.

            e.g.

            [imagenumber=0031][page=v.0031]

[01]1[qu]Toilet box which da

[02]                 22nd Eg

[03][source]Ill. London News 26 [/source]2

[04][qu]may have contained a

[05]of the locust which was sup

[06]or cosmetic [del]quality.[/del] value. 

[07]                                   [add]lid of the [del][??????][/del][/add]

[08]form the [del]wings[/del][/qu]

[imagedescription]On top two-thirds of the page, back wing and rear body of a grasshopper, part of a two page drawing of a carved wooden locust, an insect with long, veined wings. MM renders an Egyptian toilet box from a photograph in the Illustrated London News.[/imagedescription]

1 Text across both pages, without cancellations, reads: Toilet box which dates from about the / 22nd Egyptian Dynasty from Saqqara / Ill. London News 26 July 1930 / may have contained a preparation from the flesh /of the locust which was supposed to have a medicinal / or cosmetic value. The wings are movable and / form the lid of the box.

2  B. ("Books of the Day."): 162 (see earlier note).

__________________________________________

[imagenumber=0031][page=r.0031]

[01] 3tes from about the

[02] yptian Dynasty from Saqqara4[/qu]

[03] [source]July 1930[/source]5

[04] preparation from the flesh

[05] posed to have a medicinal

[06] The wings are movable and

[07]                      [add] box.[/add]

[imagedescription] On top two-thirds of the page, head and thorax of a grasshopper, part of a two page drawing of a carved wooden locust, an insect with long, veined wings. MM renders an Egyptian toilet box from a photograph in the the Illustrated London News.[/imagedescription]

3  Text across both pages, without cancellations, reads: Toilet box which dates from about the / 22nd Egyptian Dynasty from Saqqara / Ill. London News 26 July 1930 / may have contained a preparation from the flesh /of the locust which was supposed to have a medicinal / or cosmetic value. The wings are movable and / form the lid of the box.

4  Saqqara (also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English). Necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital of Memphis.

5  B., C. E. "Books of the Day." Illustrated London News (26 July 1930): 162. Signed C. E. B., possibly C. E. Brock.

__________________________________________

Do not repeat standard information—e.g., if an initial Notebook-wide entry describes the typical notebook page (perhaps lined, with pre-print features) or writing instrument (e.g., black ink) do not repeat this information for each image or page.

Ignore where MM's handwriting appears in relation to pre-print information unless she is responding specifically to a pre-print cue (extremely rare).

IX. Page-Level Metadata

Page

Pages will be designated by the image number and "r" for recto" or "v" for "verso."

e.g.

[page=r.0021] indicates the recto page contained within image 0021.

On recto/verso see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recto_and_verso, but note that our numbering is based on the order of images, not of the underlying physical pages, such that "r.0021" does not necessarily mean the "21st recto page" but only "the recto page contained within image number 0021."  Where images do not contain both recto/verso within a notebook, only the image number is required.

Page-level Genre

The genre tag at the page level will be used only for text that varies from the NotebookGenreDefault; if MM is taking reading notes on three consecutive pages in a poetry notebook, mark the beginning and ending of this genre at bottom and top of each page.

Mid-page, mark the beginning and ending of a non-default or continuing genre: for example, in a reading notebook, use a genre tag when MM adds a drawn figure or quoted conversation. In miscellaneous notebooks, you may need several tags per page. "Genre" may be abbreviated as "g." To mark the end of a non-default genre, you do not need to repeat the specific attribute.

e.g. 

[16]      & amazement because of its uncertainty[/g][g=poetry]
[17]
[18]    With simplicity & not w irony—
[19]    ivory white oyster white    without much stirring up[/g]
[20] [g=r]88  So one adds this brief position

In this example, the poetry passage is tagged as beginning at the end of line 16 and stopping at the end of line 19. 

Acceptable values:

draft

c (conversation)

r  (reading; any material working from a written source, starting with the date on which she is reading, including citation of source and page numbers, through actual reading notes) 

v (verse; for where she quotes published verse from others)

prose (where MM does not seem to be quoting either written text or conversation but is writing prose;)

e.g. [g=conv]recalled conversation[/g]

A drawn figure requires no genre tag; annotation should occur in the location where it occurs on the page.

Within the value [genre=r] also use [qu] and [source]:

[qu]any material quoted or paraphrased from a written source, identified or not[/qu]

[source]title, naming, or citation of material she is reading or from which she is quoting or paraphrasing[/source]; This will not include page numbers or other location within the text unless she places this information in the middle of publication information.

e.g. [g=r]Dec 2 1932 [source]Wuthering Heights[/source] p. 32 Bronte writes [qu]cited or paraphrased passage[/qu][/g]

Preceding and closing genre tags [g=r] [/g] are required only when MM changes to a new genre on beginning and again following the quotation.

When MM continues quoting from a single text across several pages, mark the end of each page with [/qu] and the beginning of the following page with [qu], followed by annotation giving the source quoted. Do not indicate a new quotation [qu] for each new page citation within that same text. The first instance of [qu] citing a particular text is followed by the annotation for that text. Do not repeat annotation information at the end of the quoted material ([/qu]). Even if quotation from a text continues onto the following page, use [/qu] to mark the end of quotation on that page.

e.g.

[01] [qu]1 28  w colors on of
. . .

[30] and so it is that he [/qu] [!this is the last line on this page!]

W. D. Wilcox, The Rockies of Canada, G. P. Putnams Son's, NY: 1909, p. 28. 

When a genre is mostly likely "Conversation" but it is unclear, use: [g=conv?]  [/g].  Make your best guess.

Genre designators may continue across recto/verso or across several images (pages).

Poetry Notebook drafts of particular poems

In poetry notebooks, mark passages where MM is clearly working toward a single particular poem as follows.

1) Indicate where on the page MM begins the draft, including the genre=draft tag, title of poem being drafted. For first instance where MM drafts toward a particular poem give: genre=draft tag, title of poem being drafted, and first publication date of the poem: [draft="title," first date of publication].

2) Where the draft resumes on the following page, use the same tag (without publication information) for that and every following page as long as the draft continues.

3) Where MM is drafting two or more poems simultaneously, list all poems; tags can be embedded, for where some lines in the middle of a page or draft section concern a second poem in addition to the first.

4) At the conclusion of the draft, or bottom of the page, use [/draft]. If MM is drafting toward more than one poem on a page, use [/draft="title of poem"]:

e.g.

[01] [draft="Silence," first published The Dial 77, October 1924] —have to be shown Longfellows grave
. . .
[23]            not in silence but restraint [/draft]

Color

The color tag will eventually be separated into two kinds of tags in the XML, one kind for different implements and another for different colors. There is no need to set a color tag at the page level unless it differs from the default color for the entire notebook; similarly, if a notebook is primarily in black ink but a page is primarily in blue ink, you need only note if there is a departure at the line-level from this default color value set at the whole-page level.

Use "color" for inks; include implement for non-ink implements and colors:

color=black (black ink, this is the general default)

color=blue (blue ink)

color=red (red ink)

color=purple (purple ink)

color=green (green ink)

color=pencil (gray lead pencil)

color=pencilgreen (green pencil)

color=crayonblue (blue crayon)

X. Line-Level Metadata

Line numbers

The start of each new row of script is indicated by [##] followed by a single space. Use initial zeroes for [01]-[09] You can have as many lines in a page as you want, and numbers may spill over a page break inside the MSWord document.

e.g.

[01] Text of line 1.
[02] Text of line 2.

Transcribe an insertion or interlineated word as its own textual line with its own line number, using [add][/add] (carets must also be noted with an [add][/add]).

e.g.

[01] Text of line 1.
[02]       [add]insertion[/add]
[03] Text of [add]^[/add] line 3.

Cancellations

Only mark cancellations when they are specific to particular words; horizontal lines drawn across all or most of a page and slanted or wavy lines cancelling passages of 2 or more lines will be described at the bottom of the page in [imagedesc]  [/imagedesc].

For cancellations, use the tag[del] [/del].

e.g.

[15]  without [del]w[/del] perceptable bend or

This means that in line 15 the letter "w" is cancelled.

Underlined words

For underlining (underscoring) use the tag [ul] [/ul].

e.g.

[24] [ul]that but only one at a time[/ul] – shall go on it

Vertical lines

Transcribe vertically written material below the numbered lines of horizontal writing as the next sequential line—i.e. if there are 30 horizontal lines on the page and 1 vertical line, the vertical will be numbered [Ver 31]. Add descriptive language about where the text is found in a [desc][/desc] element after the line number element. The precise location of vertical text will be marked up using visual zones, so the line numbers are more of an index value than a precise descriptive value

e.g.

[21] Text of line 21.
[22] Text of line 22.
[23] Text of  line 23.
[Ver 24] [desc]span lines 03-17, left margin[/desc]Text of vertical line 24.

For vertical lines, there is no need for an end-tag. In the example above, the vertical text spans much of the horizontal body text, beginning line 3 and concluding line 17, in the margin. Vertical lines where the beginning of the line begins at 17 would be tagged: [Ver 24] [desc]span lines 17-03, left margin[/desc].

Vertical lines written in more than one row of print receive only one [Ver] line number. Describe the text as written in multiple rows of print but transcribe it consecutively in order to facilitate reading the text—e.g., you will include [del] and [add] tags but not put added material on a separate row of print; use / marks to indicate new row of script: 

e.g.

Ver[51][desc]lines 42-06, left margin[/desc]Clearly schooling education has some connection with sobriety.

Ver[52][desc] continuation of line 30, along right margin and then in 6 rows vertically at foot of the sheet [/desc][from line 30: "it is not the"] red white & blue one tires of but / the onyx & the / silver / & the peculiar / tall [unclear]small[/unclear] / this giraffe / Characters 

When there is vertically written text on both margins, always transcribe the left margin text first, then the right. If there are distinct units of text in a single margin, transcribe them in separate

[Ver] line numbers, beginning with the text unit closest to the top of the page.

            e.g.

                        [Ver 34][desc]span lines 30-26, left margin[/desc] Conversation

[Ver 35][desc] span lines 31-17, left margin[/desc] It is [del]not to Cupid but to nor to[/del] Pan

Marks, squiggles, wavy lines, etc

For non-representational marks (circled or bracketed passages, cancellations across several lines, arrows, marginal lines apparently of emphasis), provide description following the transcription of vertical lines.

e.g.

[Ver 24] [desc]span 03-17, along left margin[/desc]Text of vertical line.

[imagedesc]MM draws a circle around right-margin words, 05-58; MM draws an arrow linking line 02 to 24[/imagedesc]

Do not use end punctuation, and description of all non-representational marks on a page may be combined in a single [/imagedesc] note.

Foreign Languages

Mark the presence of a foreign language using [lang].

e.g. [lang=french]L'Abbé Tempête Arnaud de Rancé[/lang]

This is not required for words and phrases that are commonly used in English.

Shorthand "the"

When MM uses ^[the in shorthand], explain it in the introduction to the notebook and in a note the first time it occurs in that notebook; thereafter, continue to transcribe as [!shorthand!]the but it should be represented in the final visual displays as "the": e.g., in the visual display one would see for first use:

                  the choicest & the* worst

                 *Annotation: MM uses a shorthand sign (^) for the word the.


Annotation Guidelines

For now, we are putting annotation in MS Word "footnote" format, which is then transformed into TEI XML note elements.

Annotation numbers should appear after commas and periods, but before em-dashes.

General principles

Our goal is to provide basic useful information to help the reader navigate MM's notebook pages without engaging in scholarly interpretation or providing all information a scholar might desire. Commentary on, for example, the extent to which MM paraphrases rather than quotes her sources or on the numbers of times she repeats variations of a phrase in drafting a poem, will go in the editor's "Introduction" to the notebook. Obvious cultural references (Shakespeare, Wordsworth) do not require annotation unless there is a particular connection with MM—e.g., H.D. or T. S. Eliot are not just famous persons but were personal friends of MM's for decades.

Annotation should always be brief. People important to MM will have longer entries in the Glossary, and a brief note—e.g., on Pound—will have a hyperlink to the longer Glossary note. Only annotate references to family members if it is necessary for comprehension—e.g., if MM uses a nickname.

I. Specific Guidelines for Annotation

1) Except when embedded in quoted material, Marianne Moore should be referred to as MM in all annotations. Family names should also be abbreviated: MWM and JWM for Mary Warner Moore and John Warner Moore. If the context is unclear, add a descriptor in the annotation, such as "MWM, MM's mother."

2) Commentary should be brief and primarily factual.

3) Annotate all articles from which MM quotes. If you cannot find information about an article, do not annotate it.

4) Web links are not included in annotation. 

5) If you locate a web link or other source for MM's reading material, make a list of the appropriate links or PDF sources in a separate (Word) document. Give specific information for each link or source: Notebook and image number, and title/location of source. When you have finished transcribing the notebook, send it to Cris as a separate document. Please hold on to the PDF files until either Cris or Nick requests them. Much or all of this material will be posted in "Moore's Sources," under "Criticism and Commentary."

6) Typically, do not cite the material MM is quoting or paraphrasing in a notebook. Often her quotations are inexact, and in Poetry Notebooks she often intermingles note-taking with composition. If she is quoting a famous source and the quoted material is brief (a line or two of poetry; less than one sentence in prose), you may provide an exact quotation of the original material, if it seems relevant. Similarly, MM sometimes gets a page number wrong. If it seems important to correct this information, do so. Otherwise, ignore. Interested scholars may determine the accuracy of MM's quotations.

7) Use [source][/source] and provide annotation only for texts from which MM quotes. When she lists books or essays but does not quote from them, do not use source brackets and do not annotate. If the content of the list is not clear from context, you might annotate the list as a whole, e.g., "MM lists several books about printing."

8) Do not provide line numbers in annotation on MM's drafting toward a poem, or in any other circumstances. The viewer will not see line numbers. Instead provide a general description of where the drafting occurs, if it is not throughout the page; e.g., MM drafts toward "The Jerboa" until the horizontal line drawn across the page, then toward "The Plumet Basilisk." Line numbers should be used in [imagedesc] or [VER][desc], as indicated in the Transcription Guidelines.

II. Annotating Persons, Places or Institutions

Persons, places, or institutions MM mentions will appear in the glossary, and there will be a link between appropriate notes and glossary items. In the note, give minimal information. 

1) To annotate an author, give name, birth/death dates, and very brief information: e.g.,

Davis, Frank Cecil [1892-1990]. English art critic, author of numerous books about the art market and collecting, and of the recurring Illustrated London News feature, "A Page for Collectors."

Only annotate authors of articles if they recur or if the people are themselves important. Annotate other people mentioned only if they are important to MM (or modernism) and where an annotation significantly clarifies the context. Shakespeare, Confucius, and other famous people should not receive annotations unless there is a specific link to MM's publications or providing a date contributes significantly to the context (e.g., of a Chinese emperor/dynasty). Where MM lists several people in a field, you might include one annotation saying, e.g., "MM lists several fourteenth-century painters." If this information is clear from MM's reading notes, the annotation is unnecessary.

2) No individual should receive more than one annotation per notebook, regardless how often s/he is cited or mentioned.

III. Annotating Quoted or Paraphrased Texts

1) Quotations should be annotated to the extent necessary to clarify the source of the text; do not provide comparative text or URL. If MM provides page numbers, no need to corroborate in annotation but if possible do give the edition she is quoting from. 

2) Repeated sources: repeat annotation for quotation on each page that MM quotes that text—e.g., if she quotes a single text on several successive pages, repeat it in abbreviated form at the beginning of the first line of transcription on each page, that is, the annotation should come before any transcribed text and before [qu]; in the note, the abbreviated reference should be followed by (see earlier note).

[!first annotation!] Davis, Frank. "A Page for Collectors: Persian Art, the Small Collector's Point of View." Illustrated London News (10 January 1931): 67.

[!following references!] Davis, Frank. "Persian Art" (see earlier note).

If the author contributes a regular series (e.g., Davis, "A Page for Collectors") refer to it by abbreviated distinguishing sub-title in references following the initial annotation—as indicated above. Do not repeat note on the author.

 

3) Where there is no author's name, refer to an abbreviated title of the source.

e.g. "The Jewel" (see earlier note).

4) If information is unknown about a person annotated, use a question mark where appropriate.

e.g. Smith, John [1953?-2003].

5) Make separate annotations for an author's name and for the title of a work, when both are necessary. A hyperlink to an author's name in the Glossary will be in the note on that author; a hyperlink to a publication MM cites—e.g., the Illustrated London News—will appear in every note pointing to the ILN.

6) Do not annotate journal titles. The Glossary will provide standard information for all journals mentioned.

7) Typically place the source annotation following all relevant information about the source (author, title, publication information—but not page number cited). If this would place two annotations—one for author and one for source—in the same position, move [/source] and annotation for source earlier. E.g.

[18][source]At.[add]lantic[/add] Monthly Oct 1935

[19] Proust [/source][!source annotation here!]  Havelock Ellis[!author annotation here!]

Bracket for [qu] begins after the source information. Where MM gives source information at the end, or in the middle, of a quotation, provide annotation of source either at the beginning of the quotation (preceding [qu]) or following her reference to the source (following [/source]). Do not provide two notes to the same source. Typically:

[21][source]Ill. London News 18 Oct 1930[/source][!annotation goes here!]

[22] p. 13 [qu] on the hot afternoon . . . [/qu] 

8) Where a quotation is continued in a vertical line or vertical lines, do not repeat the annotation.

IV. Annotation examples

1) Annotating sources not by MM:

a) book

Last name, First name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Commentary. 

e.g.

Santayana, George. The Last Puritan: A Memoir in the Form of a Novel. London: Constable Publishers, 1935.

b) article, essay, or poem from a magazine or newspaper

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Volume.Issue (Day Month Year): pages. Commentary (if useful) and if not provided under author annotation. In some cases not all information will be available (e.g., page numbers). In others, the relevant information may be editor of the little magazine, not author of an article, if MM is reading the entire issue. 

e.g.

Tyro: A Review of the Arts of Painting, Sculpture and Design 1 (1921). Ed. Wyndham Lewis. MM praised Tyro in her essay "Feeling and Precision," Sewanee Review (Autumn 1944).

This commentary might also appear as:

Lewis, Wyndham [1882-1957]. English painter, writer, and critic, co-founder of Vorticism. MM admired his and Ezra Pound's Blast (1914) and praised Tyro in "Feeling and Precision." [!This assumes the essay publication information appeared in an earlier note!]

c) review from a magazine or newspaper

Review Author. "Title of Review (if there is one)." Rev. of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist. Title of Periodical Volume.Issue (Day Month Year): page. Commentary. 

e.g.

MacPherson, Kenneth. Rev. of Cinema: A Review of Thirty Years' Achievement, by C. A. Lejeune. Close-Up 8.1 (December 1931): 333-336. 

d) poem

i) If the poem/author is well-known (Yeats, Milton, Shakespeare, Donne) give:

Last name, first name. "Title of poem," first published XXXX: "line or lines quoted [!if necessary; see I.5 above!]."

ii) If the poem is obscure, give full publication information.

e) advertisement

Ad. Author [if any]. Ad. for Company/Product in ad. Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages. Commentary (if required). 

e.g.

Ad. for Leonhard Frank's novel, The SingersNew York Herald Tribune 26 February 1933: H13. 

2) Annotating poem by MM

"Poem Title." Commentary.

On first mention of the poem, give publication information, as: "Poem Title," first published Publication, Month Year. Commentary.

Commentary may include "quote from poem" [qtd. from source—ideally from first presentation of poem—as provided by Schulze or White]. **In Poetry Notebooks, information about source of quotations may be given in the Introduction. Typically, do not cite lines from a poem to provide a comparison with MM's drafts; this should be done only in exceptional cases—for example, where a single important line used in the published poem appears very early in MM's drafting process. Do not give variant versions of a line or lines, as they appear in various publications.

e.g.

MM drafts toward "The Frigate Pelican," first published Criterion, July 1934.

Or when first publication has already been given in the notebook:

MM drafts toward "Marriage" and perhaps, on the bottom half of the page, toward "An Octopus." Only the lines beginning this page appear in a published poem: "men have power and sometimes one is made to feel it" ("Marriage").

Or

MM drafts toward "Silence"; several phrases appear in published poem.

3) Generic explanatory note

Commentary.

e.g.

STE: for librarians in the early twentieth century, this refers to the Dewey Decimal Science Technology and Education system; MM seems to be referring to the New York Board of Health sanitary code. It could be that section 215a of the code was amended during the 1930s to address radio and phonograph noise—which would have been relatively new at the time. 

4) Occasion or event

"Event Name (if there is one)." Description of event. Location, Day Month Year. Commentary. (if any).

e.g.

Reading by Alfred Kreymborg and Harriet Monroe. Brooklyn Institute, November 1932. The "girl" described has not been identified.


Glossary Style Guide

These guidelines describe how information should be rendered for glossary items. Please enter information in the Glossary spreadsheet according to these guidelines so that it will appear as intended when it is processed for publication on the site. To review or update the formatting rules for how items are displayed on the glossary web page, see [link to stylesheet file].

All information should be entered into the appropriate category box on the spreadsheet without regard to font style or size, although examples below include approximations of final formatting.

I. Entries for People or Characters

Glossary items about people or characters should begin with the name of the subject (last, first) followed by birth and death dates, if known (if only approximate dates are known, use "c."):

de Monvel, Bernard Boutet (August 9, 1881 – October 28, 1949)

On the MMDA Glossary Spreadsheet, enter this information, along with any known aliases or nicknames, using the respective columns for "Last (or full)," "First," "Other names," "Birth YYYY." "Birth MM," "Birth DD," "Death YYYY," "Death MM," and "Death DD."

Remember to check for existing entries under all versions of a person's name before entering new ones to avoid any duplicates.  

In the "General Description" field, describe the entrant briefly in general terms, typically including occupation and most notable accomplishments or associations. This description need not use complete syntax—e.g.:

Harunobu, Suzuki (c. 1725 – July 15, 1770)
     Japanese designer of woodblock print, noted for being the first to produce full-color prints, in 1765.

This information can be added and updated in the MMDA Glossary spreadsheet under the column "General Description." 

Where possible, each entry should include additional information about the entrant's connection to Moore or to modernism, or both. In some cases, entry will include information about a specific reference as well as a list of page numbers for other mentions.

            e.g.

Huebsch, B. W. (1876 – 1964)

     Early-twentieth-century New York publisher of many notable modernist works, including D. H. Lawrence Sons and Lovers, James Joyce's Dubliners and Portrait of the Artist, and Sherwood Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio.

     Publisher of the 1921 Yearbook that Moore repurposes for Notebook 07.03.11.

     See: Notebook 07.03.11 page 0005-recto.

This information can be added and updated in the MMDA Glossary spreadsheet under the column "Description of Relation to Moore." 

In most cases, information about specific mention or use will appear in annotation, not the glossary.

Entry should conclude with finding information: "See: Notebook page [#]". Where the entrant is mentioned on multiple pages or in multiple notebooks, page references should be divided with a comma and notebook references with a semi-colon, as:

See: Notebook 07.03.11 pages 14r, 15v, 17v; Notebook 07.04.07 page 1r.

A complete entry (formatted) would look like:

Harunobu, Suzuki (c. 1725 – July 15, 1770)
     Japanese designer of woodblock print, noted for being the first to produce full-color prints, in 1765.

     See: Notebook 07.04.07 page 0031.

When appropriate, the finding information should be separated into categories as follows:

See: general mention or reference [default]

Cited: named as an author or creator of a work or work(s), without quotation. If there is citation and quotation, just use "quoted."  

Quoted: source of a quotation with or without citation

Quotation about: subject of a quotation or named within a quotation

General mentions or notebook references will go under "See" designator, which should include any instances that do not fit clearly into one of the other categories. .An entry may have more than one category of reference. In the spreadsheet, enter the relevant pages within the appropriate field for each new category of finding information, i.e. "See," "Cited," "Quoted," or "Quotation About." 

The full template for an entry including all optional fields, then, would look like: 

[Last/Family Name], [First Name] [a.k.a. [Other names]] (birth date – death date)

     [General Description.]

     [Description of Relation to Moore/Modernism.]

     See:  Notebook [##.##.##] page [####].
     Cited: Notebook [##.##.##] page [####].
     Quoted:  Notebook [##.##.##] page [####].
     Quotation About:  Notebook [##.##.##] page [####].

II. Entries for Organizations or Institutions

Glossary items about organizations or institutions should list the full title of the group or company, omitting initial "The" unless it is part of the formal title, as in the case of a magazine such as "The Spectator." Note that when entries are alphabetized within the glossary, initial "The" will be disregarded, such that "The Spectator" would appear under the "S" section rather than the "T" section.

In "date" fields, include beginning and ending dates, if known. For books and periodicals, give the date of first publication and, if identified in the corresponding annotation, the publication information for the specific edition that Moore is using. For still existing entities, enter "Present" as the end date. For example, formatted entries would appear as:

State Board of Health of New York (1880 – Present)

     Department of the New York state government responsible for public health, first established as an advisory body by New York state law on May 18, 1880 as the "State Board of Health of New York" and later reorganized as the New York State Department of Health. Also referred to as "New York Board of Health."

     See: Notebook 07.03.11 [page XX].

The Spectator (6 July 1828 – Present)

     Weekly British magazine addressing current affairs, politics, and culture, founded by Robert Stephen Rintoul. The Spectator first came to prominence for its cultural coverage under the proprietorship of John St Loe Strachey, who edited the magazine from 1887– 1925. Under subsequent editors, The Spectator was also known for its coverage of politics.

     MM frequently read and took notes on articles in The Spectator.

     See Notebook 07.03.11 pages [#], [#], [#], […]; Notebook 07.04.07 pages pages [#], [#], [#], […].


Guideline Revisions

Last update: February 15th, 2020 by Kehinde Alonge and Kathleen Naughton.  

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